Sindh Ki Samaji o Saqafati Tareekh by Dr. Mubarak Ali Pdf Free Download
Sindh Ki Samaji o Saqafati Tareekh authored by Dr. Mubarak Ali. This is an Urdu translation of the famous historian Dr. Mubarak Ali’s English book “A Social and Cultural History of Sindh” (Based on the account of the European Travellers who visited Sindh. Thanks to Sardar Azeemullah Advocate for translating this book into Urdu with love and keen interest. This book has been compiled based on the statements of European tourists and diplomats in the light of their statements and impressions. In it, these tourists and diplomats have expressed their impressions about the geography, cities, rulers, government, and administration, the people, and the land of Sindh.
However, before accepting the statements and impressions of these tourists, it is important to understand that they view other societies and their activities in the light of their own traditions, values, and prejudices. During their short stay, it is difficult for them to fully understand the internal structure of society and its tendencies. For example, when the people of Sindh are mentioned, their perception of peace is that they are lazy, sluggish, and intoxicated. Now if we look at the factors of laziness and sluggishness, we see two things in it. If the production in a country is more than the requirement and the basic needs of the people are easily met, then they carry out the work with ease. Spend leisure time in leisure or chat. In this way, their lives are not dominated, but they complete the work as they wish.
Another reason for laziness is that when people do not get full compensation for their labor, they do not take interest in work. In this case, laziness and laziness become their means of resistance. Therefore, the laziness of the people needs to be seen in this context.
These statements of tourists also give us an idea of the process by which the cities of Sindh fell into backwardness and decline. Characteristically, the decline of Thatta and Shikarpur can be well understood in light of these statements. In addition, the situation in other cities shows the political and social life of that time.
Tourists have also specifically mentioned people’s superstitions and religious prejudices. But it also needs to be looked at under the circumstances. Superstitions arise in every society where knowledge is at stake, and people are victims of natural disasters and the exploitation of rulers. In this case, people take refuge in these superstitions. Although the issue has been raised by tourists that Hindus were mistreated in Sindh, now research has shown that the rulers of Sindh have been wrongly accused of this, because of the Sindhi Hindu agents and traders whose Social status is different from these statements.
These prejudices of the tourists about the rulers of Sindh also come to the fore. It is a great mistake to look at the court of Sindh in the light of the Mughal court or the courts of other states of India because the Talpur rulers belonged to the tribal society, so they did not have the politeness in literature. The diplomats who came from British India are prejudiced against the court, the rulers, and the emperors, and they often say that it is easy for them to conquer Sindh because the princes do not have military power nor are they united. These diplomats had gathered all kinds of information about Sindh even before the occupation of Sindh. That is why they had no difficulty in conquering it.
But despite all these weaknesses, these tourists and diplomats have looked at important aspects of Sindhi society that are common to most locals, and they ignore them. Since we see a lack of material in contemporary history that highlights the social and cultural aspects, their statements fill that gap.
It also gives an idea of the image of Sindhis in the eyes of others. Because the other person criticizes in a cruel way, we don’t see ourselves that way. If it is assumed that these statements paint a negative picture of Sindh, then there is a need to respond to the challenge. Because the effect of this image is still there and the people of Sindh form an opinion about themselves by looking at themselves in this mirror.
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